Best motherboard for Ryzen 9 7950x

Navigating the labyrinth of tech specifications can often feel like deciphering an alien language. But don’t worry, we’re here to be your translator and guide as you search for the best motherboard for the Ryzen 9 7950X. This heavyweight processor, unleashed by AMD, is a beast that demands a worthy companion- a motherboard that won’t buckle under its power but will bring out the best in it.

In this article, we’ve sifted through countless options and done all the heavy lifting so you can ride effortlessly into glorious gaming or computing sunset. We’ll delve deep into what you need to know about Ryzen-compatible motherboards and present our top choices that are perfect for this high-performance CPU. So, tighten your seatbelts and get ready; it’s time to explore some serious ‘motherboard’ territory!

Understanding the Ryzen 9 7950x

Dominating the processor industry, the Ryzen 9 7950X by AMD has become a mythical giant that has revolutionized our understanding of computing capabilities. It’s more than just a chip; it’s an exceptional engineering masterpiece that balances passion and professionalism. Furnished with an impressive array of sophisticated features, this powerful processor provides premium performance for gaming enthusiasts, video editing experts, and software creators.

The Ryzen 9 7950X is much more than raw power; it embodies efficiency. With its outstanding Zen 3 architecture supporting higher clock speeds, improved cache topology, and powerful multi-threading capabilities, this formidable juggernaut ensures you are always ahead in any task – gaming at ultra settings or rendering stunning visual effects! Challenging preconceived notions about consumer-grade hardware limitations became facts accomplished with this exceptional tech wizardry!

Top 7 Motherboards for Ryzen 9 7950x

For those of you diving into the high-performance, superior-quality realm of AMD’s Ryzen 9 7950X, pairing this processor with an equally capable motherboard is essential. Not all motherboards are created equal, and finding that perfect match could be the difference between a smooth-running gaming paradise and frustrating tech headaches.

If you want to unlock the full potential of your mighty Ryzen 9 7950X, we’ve shortlisted the top seven motherboards that complement its prowess perfectly. These recommendations balance awe-inspiring overclocking capabilities, advanced thermal design for improved cooling performance, unparalleled memory support for relentless multitasking, and future-ready features to keep users at the forefront of technology trends.

1. Gigabyte MB GBT AMD AM5 X670 AORUS PRO AX

Embrace the ultra-high performance of the Gigabyte MB GBT AMD AM5 X670 AORUS PRO AX, tailor-made as the best motherboard for Ryzen 9 7950X. This remarkable motherboard harnesses innovative technology and design to offer seamless gaming, unrivaled speed, and superior overclocking levels. It’s more than just hardware; it’s a heart that beats in your PC, pumping pure power into every game you play for an exhilarating experience.

With its sophisticated design blending captivating visuals and superior quality parts, Gigabyte’s exceptional creation is precisely engineered to maximize the performance of your Ryzen 9 7950X processor. The data pathways on this top-tier motherboard have been fine-tuned for supersonic speed data flow, promising swift reactions and seamless gaming experiences. Embark on your digital adventure with Gigabyte MB GBT AMD AM5 X670 AORUS PRO AX – the covert device powering your complete supremacy!


  • Guarantees steady operation for Ryzen 9 7950X. 
  • Maximizes the use of high-speed components. 
  • Offers quick and dependable wireless connections. 
  • Improves overclocking potential for hobbyists. 
  • Robust components promise enduring dependability. 
  • Plenty of USB ports and connection alternatives are available. 
  • Fine-tuned for speedier memory setups.


  • This may restrict extensive RGB component connections.
  • This may not fit into more minor PC cases.
  • Restricts multiple high-speed storage configurations.

2. RyzenTM-16-Core-MSI-Gaming-Motherboard


The powerful AMD Ryzen 9 7950X 16-Core processor calls for a partnering component that can leverage its maximum potential – and that pedigree undoubtedly belongs to the MSI MEG X670E ACE Gaming Motherboard. Crowned the best motherboard for the Ryzen 9 7950X, it offers unparalleled performance and gaming experience crafted meticulously with high-end components. This motherboard stands out in all facets, from ultra-fast memory support to effective heat dissipation management.

Experience a dive into next-gen gaming with faster loading times, smoother gameplay, and intensive multi-tasking capabilities this dynamic duo brings. The integration of top-notch connectivity options like Wi-Fi 6E and Bluetooth®5.2 bring seamless wireless communication, whereas USB3.2 Gen2x2 supports rapid data transfer speeds up to 20Gb/s! Truly, pairing your AMD Ryzen 9 7950X16-Core with the MSI MEG X670E ACE is paving your way towards an immersive user experience unheard of.


  • The Ryzen 9 7950X complements the MSI MEG X670E ACE, ensuring optimal performance.
  • The motherboard features a high-quality VRM design for stable power delivery to the Ryzen 9 7950X.
  • The processor and motherboard support PCIe 4.0, maximizing data transfer rates for compatible components.
  • Effective cooling solutions on the motherboard enhance overall system thermals, which is critical for a high-end CPU like the Ryzen 9 7950X.
  • MSI’s MEG X670E ACE boasts durable construction and premium components, ensuring longevity and reliability.
  • Integrated Wi-Fi 6E provides fast and reliable wireless networking, enhancing connectivity options.
  • The motherboard provides ample USB ports, accommodating various peripherals and accessories.


  • The combined cost of the Ryzen 9 7950X and the MSI MEG X670E ACE may be higher, limiting accessibility for budget-conscious users.
  • The extensive features in the BIOS may be overwhelming for users new to motherboard customization.
  • If planning multiple high-speed storage configurations, the motherboard’s M.2 slots might be limited.
  • High-demand components like the Ryzen 9 7950X and premium motherboards may face availability challenges.

3. ASUS ROG Strix X670E-F Gaming Motherboard

ASUS ROG Strix X670E-F Gaming Motherboard

The gaming world takes a beautiful leap forward as the ASUS ROG Strix X670E-F Gaming WIFI6E Socket AM5 (LGA 1718) Ryzen 7000 Gaming Motherboard enters the fold. This high-tech motherboard exhibits subtle prowess with advanced specs like PCIe 5.0, DDR5, and four M.2 Slots with heatsinks, placing it head-and-shoulders above its peers regarding raw performance.

When coupled with the beastly Ryzen 9 7950x processor, this innovative motherboard shines brighter than ever, providing a synergy that results in smooth gameplay and impressive speeds. The endorsement of the ASUS ROG Strix X670E-F as one of the best motherboards for Ryzen 9 7950x cannot be understated – owing to its remarkable power stages complemented by state-of-the-art features like AI Cooling II and Aura Sync lighting tech removing any bottlenecks in processing or graphical performances respectively – bringing your gaming experience into new dimensions!


  • The ASUS ROG Strix X670E-F guarantees optimal compatibility and superior performance for the Ryzen 9 7950X. 
  • Its high-quality 16 2 power stage design ensures a consistent and dependable power supply. 
  • The motherboard adopts the newest PCIe 5.0 standard, offering ultra-fast data transfer speeds. 
  • It’s future-ready with DDR5 memory configuration support to maximize system velocity. 
  • The device comes with AI Cooling II for intelligent and effective heat management. 
  • Its four M.2 slots with heatsinks provide excellent cooling for rapid storage devices. 
  • It offers advanced USB connectivity for swift data transfers and promises speedy and trustworthy wireless networking capabilities.


  • Premium features come at a cost, making it a pricier option for budget-conscious users.
  • Extensive BIOS features may overwhelm users who are new to motherboard customization.
  • Users with multiple storage devices may find the available SATA ports limiting.
  • High-demand components may face availability challenges.



The ASUS ROG STRIX X670E-I GAMING WIFI 6E is your one-way ticket to experiencing the future of gaming technology – an undeniable, irresistible best motherboard for Ryzen 9 7950x. Unveiling many advanced features, this mini-ITX board revolutionizes gaming with its PCIe 5.0 connectivity and DDR5 memory support, showcasing superior data transfer rates and processing prowess. Imagine the surge in performance when your Ryzen 9 is aligned with these next-level standards! It is brilliantly topped off by two M.2 slots, allowing for lightning-fast storage options that add no extra bulk to your set-up.

The exclusive elements of the ROG Strix Hive and EZ-mode PBO buttons set it further apart from the competition. Exemplifying elegant engineering, the Strix Hive connectivity design fosters seamless integration into any custom rig while proving its worth in thermal efficiency management.

Additionally, for those who seek unbounded performance potential over safety margins, this motherboard debuts an easily accessible PBO button that provides optimal power settings to elevate your AMD processor’s delivery beyond its upper limit— all without delving into complicated BIOS settings. It’s genuinely a game-like experience even before you start playing!


  • Ideal for small form factor builds, maximizing space efficiency.
  • Tailored for optimal compatibility and performance with Ryzen 7000 processors.
  • Innovative ROG Strix Hive cooling design for efficient heat dissipation in confined spaces.
  • Easy Performance Boost Override (PBO) activation with a dedicated button for simplified overclocking.
  • Future-proof with support for DDR5 memory configurations, enhancing system speed.
  • Premium power delivery design ensures stable performance for the compact build.


  • Being a mini-ITX motherboard, there are fewer expansion slots than more prominent form factors.
  • Building in a mini-ITX case may require extra attention to cable management due to limited space.
  • The smaller form factor may amplify noise from the chipset fan, affecting acoustics in some builds.

5. MSI MEG X670E GODLIKE Gaming Motherboard

Diving deep into the specifics, the MSI MEG X670E GODLIKE Gaming Motherboard is nothing short of a tech enthusiast’s dream come true. It presents an elite-class EATX design powered by AMD AM5 to deliver unparalleled performance. This heart-stopping hardware incorporates PCIe 5.0 and SATA 6Gb/s for swift communication with your system’s components, ensuring minimal latency and optimal game fidelity.

The marquee feature is its DDR5 memory support – delivering higher bandwidth, increased capacity, and better energy efficiency – thus significantly stepping up your gaming performance. The board further supplements this lightning-fast setup with USB 3.2 Gen2 ports for high-speed external connections, dual LAN, and Wi-Fi 6E for unstoppable online gaming sessions. Connect multiple GPU setups via SLI link to achieve eye-popping visual detail that leaves other gamers envious! Let’s appreciate that every intricacy in the MSI MEG X670E GODLIKE has been designed to meet and exceed gamer expectations at all levels.


  • Offers extensive space for components, enhancing overall build flexibility and cooling potential.
  • Represents MSI’s flagship GODLIKE tier, ensuring premium features and top-notch quality.
  • Tailored for optimal compatibility and performance with Ryzen 7000 processors.
  • Embraces the latest PCIe 5.0 standard for lightning-fast data transfer rates.
  • Future-proof with support for DDR5 memory configurations, maximizing system speed.
  • Incorporates high-end cooling features to maintain optimal temperatures during intensive tasks.
  • Supports NVIDIA SLI technology for users planning to run multiple graphics cards.


  • Reflects the premium features and flagship status, making it a high-end option in terms of cost.
  • No Debug LEDs: Lack of diagnostic LEDs may make troubleshooting more challenging.
  • Some users may find the gaming-centric features excessive for non-gaming workloads.

6. ASUS AM4 TUF Gaming X570-Plus (Wi-Fi)

The ASUS AM4 TUF Gaming X570-Plus (Wi-Fi) AM4 Zen 3 Ryzen 5000 & 3rd Gen Ryzen ATX motherboard is a remarkable tech marvel, widely considered the top choice for Ryzen 9 7950x. This robust component delivers exceptional performance and utmost durability to handle your rigorous gaming needs. At its root, this high-efficiency motherboard features a PCIe 4.0 interface, dual M2 slots, and the innovative Dr.MOS Power Stage. Collectively, they boost system efficiency and reliability, ensuring swift data transfer and steadfast dependability.

What sets this ASUS beauty apart is its military-grade TUF components that promise longevity alongside flawless performance. Moreover, ProCool sockets augmented by Dr.MOS chips dissolve heat efficiently, providing robust power delivery under heavy load scenarios. Consequently, boosting CPU performance is especially beneficial when running a beast like the Ryzen 9 7950x! Coupled with its Wi-Fi capabilities ensuring seamless online connections and backed by enduring components designed to withstand extreme conditions – you are looking at a product that embodies resilience at its core and top-tier performance functionality!


  • Optimized for Zen 3 and Ryzen 5000 series processors for top-tier performance.
  • Harnesses the power of PCIe 4.0 for faster data transfer rates and improved storage and GPU performance.
  • Provides flexibility for high-speed NVMe SSD storage solutions, maximizing data access speeds.
  • Features a 12+2 power stage design with Dr. MOS, ensuring stable and efficient power delivery for CPUs.
  • Standard ATX size offers compatibility with a wide range of cases and easy expansion options.
  • Aesthetically pleasing design and compatibility with other TUF Gaming Alliance components.
  • Integrated Wi-Fi module for convenient wireless networking.
  • Military-grade TUF components for enhanced durability and reliability.


  • A USB-C header might be a drawback for users with devices requiring this connector.
  • The absence of diagnostic LEDs can make troubleshooting more challenging.
  • Has a single LAN port, limiting connectivity options for users requiring dual LAN setups.
  • Some users report moderate noise levels from the chipset fan.

7. ASUS ROG Crosshair X670E Hero (WiFi 6E) Gaming Motherboard

7. ASUS ROG Crosshair X670E Hero (WiFi 6E) Gaming Motherboard

High-performance gaming environments demand top-tier components, and with the ASUS ROG Crosshair X670E Hero (WiFi 6E) Socket AM5 Gaming Motherboard at your build’s base, you’ll be ready to crush any digital battlefield. This motherboard is crafted for Ryzen 7000 gamers who intend to take their gaming rig beyond the usual limits. Coming loaded with 18+2 power stages, this juggernaut of a product ensures optimal power delivery even in extreme overclocking conditions – heralding in an era of immersive high-definition gameplay.

The futureproof setup doesn’t stop there; besides sporting cutting-edge DDR5 memory support for blazing-fast data processing, it features no less than 5 M.2 slots to house your SSDs without compromising on speed or storage space. With PCIe 5.0 technology onboard, expect unprecedented graphic quality from this titan decked out in gamer-friendly aesthetics. The added benefit of front-panel USB3.2 Gen 2×2 and USB4 makes lightning-fast data transfers possible and provides many connectivity options that every severe gamer craves.

Its standout feature, though, has got to be the WiFi-6E capability offering gigabit wireless speeds, ensuring super smooth online multiplayer experiences while reducing lag or disconnections during critical game moments – putting victory squarely within grasp!


  • The design ensures superior power delivery for the best stability and overclocking potential. 
  • It uses the newest PCIe 5.0 standard for rapid data transfer speeds. 
  • It’s future-ready with DDR5 memory configuration support, ensuring maximum system speed. 
  • Plenty of M.2 slots are available for a wide range of high-speed storage setups. 
  • The front-panel USB provides fast and convenient data transfer, while USB4 support guarantees even quicker data transfer and compatibility with various devices. 
  • As part of the renowned ROG brand, it embodies top-tier gaming innovation quality.
  • It is specifically designed for optimal performance and compatibility with Ryzen 7000 processors.


  • Premium features and design contribute to a higher overall cost.
  • Devices supporting USB 3.2 Gen 2×2 are currently limited, potentially underutilizing this feature.
  • The absence of diagnostic LEDs may make troubleshooting more challenging.
  • Larger Wi-Fi antennas may require additional space, affecting aesthetics.

Importance of Choosing the Right Motherboard for Ryzen 9 7950x

Diving deep into PC builds, you’ll find that one component rules them all: the Motherboard. Especially when dealing with powerful processors like the Ryzen 9 7950x, selecting an efficient motherboard is integral to unlocking its full potential. Your Motherboard is your PC’s backbone, linking and coordinating all components— a hub for electrical activity. It houses your GPU, CPU, memory, and much more. So, it’s not enough to invest in a top-tier processor; coupling it with an inferior motherboard could drastically stifle performance.

Combining a competent Ryzen 9 7950x processor with an aptly paired motherboard sets the stage for spectacular operation speeds and performance benefits that will transform your gaming or workstation experience. As day-to-day tasks increasingly demand more from our computers, hardware combinations that meet these demands become essential.

For instance, opting for high-quality X570 or B550 motherboards ensures advanced features such as PCIe Gen4 support —essential for faster SSDs & future GPUs— dramatically enhancing data transfer speed. This increases efficiency and pushes boundaries in what can be achieved on screen! The right pairing elevates every aspect of computing- allowing users to maximize their investment while enjoying improved processing power and smoother functionality.

Features of Ryzen 9 7950x Processor

The AMD Ryzen™ 9 7950X is a powerful 16-core, 32-thread unlocked desktop processor designed to deliver exceptional performance and efficiency. Here are its key features:

Brand and CPU Manufacturer:

The AMD Ryzen™ 9 7950X stands proudly as part of AMD’s esteemed lineup. As a leading CPU manufacturer, AMD has consistently delivered innovative and high-performance processors to meet the diverse needs of users.

CPU Model:

The CPU model, Ryzen™ 9 7950X, signifies a top-tier processor within AMD’s Ryzen series. With a focus on providing exceptional computing power, this model is tailored for demanding tasks and high-performance applications.

CPU Speed:

Operating at an impressive clock speed of 4.5 GHz, the Ryzen™ 9 7950X ensures swift and efficient data processing. This high frequency is a testament to the processor’s capability to handle complex computations quickly and precisely.

CPU Socket:

Designed to fit the Socket AM5, the processor has the latest socket technology, ensuring compatibility with cutting-edge motherboards. The AM5 socket facilitates a seamless connection between the CPU and motherboard for optimal performance.

Power Efficiency:

One notable feature is the processor’s commitment to power efficiency. By consuming less power, the Ryzen™ 9 7950X maximizes productivity while minimizing energy consumption, making it an environmentally conscious choice.

Product Line and Usability:

As part of the Ryzen 9 product line, the 7950X is specifically engineered for superior usability and increased efficiency. This product line represents AMD’s dedication to delivering high-end processors catering to the diverse needs of users seeking top-tier performance.

Process Technology:

Built on advanced 5 nm process technology, the Ryzen™ 9 7950X achieves optimal processing results. Using cutting-edge process technology improves system performance, ensuring users experience enhanced efficiency and responsiveness.

Core Configuration:

Featuring a hexadecimal-core (16-core) configuration, the processor efficiently handles data, enabling quicker transfer of information. This substantial core count is ideal for multitasking and resource-intensive applications, ensuring a smooth user experience.

Cache Memory:

Boasting 16 MB of L2 cache and an impressive 64 MB of L3 cache memory, the Ryzen™ 9 7950X achieves an excellent hit rate in short access time. This cache configuration significantly enhances system performance, contributing to faster data retrieval and processing.

Clock Speed:

Operating at a clock speed of 4.5 GHz, the processor ensures quick and dependable data processing. This high clock speed is crucial for tasks that demand rapid computations, providing users with a responsive and efficient computing experience.

Graphics Capabilities:

The Ryzen™ 9 7950X enhances the visual experience by delivering stunning picture quality by incorporating an AMD Radeon Graphics controller. This integrated graphics solution adds value to the processor, making it a versatile choice for users who prioritize both computational and graphical performance.

Factors to Consider When Buying Motherboard for Ryzen 9 7950x

When selecting a motherboard for the AMD Ryzen™ 9 7950X processor, it’s crucial to consider various factors to ensure compatibility, performance, and the ability to meet your specific needs. Here are key factors to keep in mind:

Socket Compatibility:

Ensure that the motherboard supports the AM5 socket, as the Ryzen™ 9 7950X utilizes this socket type. Check the motherboard’s specifications to confirm compatibility.

Chipset Compatibility:

Choose a motherboard with a chipset that complements the Ryzen 9 7950X. AMD regularly releases new chipsets, and selecting the latest compatible chipset ensures optimal performance and access to the latest features.

Power Delivery and VRM Quality:

The motherboard’s power delivery system and voltage regulation module (VRM) are crucial for stable performance, especially with a high-end processor like the Ryzen 9 7950X. Look for a motherboard with a robust VRM design and sufficient power phases.

Form Factor:

Consider the form factor that suits your case and build preferences. Typical form factors include ATX, microATX, and mini-ITX. Ensure the motherboard fits your chosen case and provides the necessary expansion slots for your components.

Memory Support:

Check the motherboard’s memory specifications, including supported RAM speeds and maximum capacity. The Ryzen 9 7950X benefits from high-speed memory, so choose a motherboard that can accommodate your desired RAM configuration.

PCIe Slots and Expansion:

Evaluate the number and configuration of PCIe slots for graphics cards, NVMe SSDs, and other expansion cards. Ensure the motherboard has sufficient PCIe lanes to support your planned components without compromising performance.

Storage Connectivity:

Consider the number and types of storage connectors, such as SATA and M.2 slots. Ensure compatibility with your storage devices, and check for support for the latest storage technologies for optimal data transfer speeds.

USB and Connectivity:

Assess the USB port configuration and other connectivity options. Ensure that the motherboard has an adequate number of USB ports, including USB 3.2 Gen 2 and Type-C ports, as well as other ports like HDMI or DisplayPort if you plan to use integrated graphics.

Networking Features:

Evaluate the onboard networking options, such as Ethernet controllers and Wi-Fi capabilities. Choose a motherboard with networking features that align with your preferences and requirements.

BIOS/UEFI Updates:

Check the motherboard manufacturer’s update history and support for BIOS/UEFI updates. Regular updates are essential to ensure compatibility with the latest processors and improvements in system stability.

Aesthetics and Build Quality:

Consider the motherboard’s aesthetics, especially if you prioritize the overall look of your build. Additionally, assess the build quality and durability of the motherboard components.

Tips on Installing Your New Motherboard

The art of installing the best motherboard for the Ryzen 9 7950X is akin to a surgeon weaving their magic during surgery. At the core of your PC, it seamlessly orchestrates the symphony between your CPU, GPU, RAM, and other hardware components. Yet its installation remains an intimidating aspect that keeps numerous DIY builders at bay. Fret not! Mastering this crucial procedure can elevate your PC-building skills to unparalleled heights. 

Compatibility Check: 

Ensure the chosen motherboard is compatible with the Ryzen 9 7950X, considering socket type (AM5), chipset (X670), and other specifications.

BIOS Update: 

Check and update the motherboard’s BIOS to the latest version to ensure compatibility and access to the latest features.

Anti-Static Precautions: 

Ground yourself to prevent static discharge. Use an anti-static wrist strap or touch a grounded metal object before handling components.

Case Compatibility: 

Confirm that the motherboard fits your case’s form factor (ATX, microATX, mini-ITX) and has the necessary mounting points.

CPU Installation: 

Handle the Ryzen 9 7950X carefully, align it correctly with the socket, and secure it in place following the motherboard’s manual.

Cooler Installation: 

Install the CPU cooler according to the manufacturer’s instructions, ensuring proper contact with the CPU for effective cooling.

RAM Installation: 

Populate RAM slots following the motherboard’s guidelines, ensuring the RAM is fully seated and compatible with the motherboard’s specifications.

Storage Configuration: 

Connect storage devices like SSDs or HDDs to the appropriate SATA or M.2 slots. Configure storage settings in the BIOS if necessary.

GPU Installation: 

Install the graphics card into the PCIe slot, securing it in place. Connect PCIe power cables if required.

Cable Management: 

Organize and route cables neatly to optimize airflow, improve aesthetics, and prevent obstruction of components. Check all connections before powering on.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, finding the best motherboard for your Ryzen 9 7950X processor is crucial in creating an optimal computing environment. The motherboards highlighted in this article offer a range of features and benefits that make them stand out as top choices. Whether you’re a serious gamer, professional content creator, or someone who demands high performance from their computer, these motherboards can meet and exceed your expectations.

Consider factors such as speed, compatibility, expansion options, and price to find the one that perfectly suits your needs. Invest wisely in a powerful motherboard now and experience a significant boost in your computer’s performance.


Q: Can I use a B450 motherboard with Ryzen 9 7950x?

A: Although technically possible, it’s not recommended as B450 motherboards may not fully support the high-end performance of the Ryzen 9 7950x.

Q: What cooling system do I need when pairing a high-performance motherboard with my Ryzen 9-7950X CPU?

A: Due to its powerful performance, a robust cooling solution such as a high-quality air cooler or liquid cooler is recommended for the Ryzen 9 7950x.

Q: Do I need to update BIOS when installing a new motherboard for my Ryzen-9-7950x?

Most recent motherboards should come ready for these CPUs, but a BIOS update may be required if it’s an older stock motherboard.

Q: What GPU Should I Pair Up with the Ryzen 9 7950X?

A: Pair it with a high-end GPU like an NVIDIA RTX 3080 or AMD Radeon RX 6800 XT for optimal gaming performance.

Q: Is the Ryzen 9 7950X Good for Gaming?

A: The Ryzen 9 7950X is excellent for gaming, thanks to its high core count, fast clock speeds, and overall strong performance.